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The Command and Query Responsibility Segregation (CQRS) Design Pattern

Introduction

The ‘Command and Query Responsibility Segregation’ (CQRS) design pattern is based on the “Command-Query Separation” (CQS) principle from the book “Object-Oriented Software Construction“ by Bertrand Meyer (1988) and was first mentioned by Greg Young and Udi Dahan in 2010.

This pattern has produced a lot of excitement and hype but the principle behind it is very simple.

As the demands on command methods (any method with write access that mutates state) are usually very different to those on query methods (any method with read access that returns a value), it makes sense to separate these two groups. This would naturally mean different services but might also mean different models.

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Howto – bash audit / command logger

Introduction

Having a complete history of all typed commands can be very helpful in many scenarios:

  • when several administrators work together on the same server and need to know what was done previously
  • when someone need to redo an older sequence of commands or to understand an undocumented maintenance process
  • for troubleshooting or forensic analysis, by crosschecking the date of an event or of a file with the commands executed at that date

The standard ‘.bash_history’ file of the shell is unfortunately not written on disk in the case of a crash and it may be deleted by the user.
Another problem is that when many shell sessions are running concurrently, their logging will only occur when they are closed, therefore the commands of the history will not appear in their chronological order.
Furthermore, ‘.bash_history’ will not include essential information like the ‘working directory’ of the command; and by default the repetition or re-edition of commands will not be logged, too.

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